The eight stages of human development- Erikson
Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-94) was a German-American developmental psychologist known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.
- Trust vs Mistrust (0-18 months):This is the first stage of human development. The child builds trust in this stage. Infants develop based upon the quality their caregivers give them to meet their basic needs. If these needs are not consistently met, they develop suspicion, distrust, and anxiety. The basic virtue in this stage is
- Autonomy vs Shame (18 months to three years):It is the second stage of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. The basic virtue in this stage is will; a child develops a sense of personal identity that continues to influence his/her ego identity and development for the rest of life.
- Initiative vs Guilt (3-5 years): During the initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world, expressing it in their play and other social interaction. The basic virtue in this stage is
- Industry vs Inferiority (5-12 years): The basic virtue in this stage is competence. Children learn to read and write, do homework, do sums, do things on their own.
- Identity vs Role Confusion (12-18 years): During this stage of adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self. In this stage, success leads to an ability to stay true to oneself, while failure leads to confusion and a weak self-image.
- Intimacy vs Isolation (18-40 years): A major concern that arises in the minds of humans in this stage is of love and intimacy in relationships with other people. Isolation occurs when a person fails to find a partner and fulfill the urge of sexual intimacy.
- Generativity vs Stagnation (40-65 years): This stage occurs during middle adulthood. The term generativity was coined by Erikson—it refers to establishing an ethnicity/a culture/a base that will guide the next generation. The virtue in this stage is
- Ego Integrity vs Despair (65 years onwards): Erikson identified that in this stage a person faces internal conflict, which involves reflecting upon one’s life—feeling either satisfied or happy with one’s life, or feeling a deep sense of regret. The basic virtue in this stage is wisdom.