Researchers of programmed learning formulated five principles shown below:
According to behaviourist psychology, a learning effect is considered to be measured by the number of responses a learner makes under arranged conditions. Feedback should be given to correct responses in order to “reinforce” such response, and it was thought that such a process would require individual learning.
|Active learner response||To what extent a learner can understand is judged by making him/her answer questions. The extent of a learner’s understanding is ascertained from what is demonstrated in the responses|
|Immediate feedback||Let a learner know whether his/her answer is correct or incorrect immediately. Give the learner the subsequent question after he/she knows whether his/her response is right or wrong|
|Small steps||Set small steps in order to prevent a learner from stumbling as much as possible. When he/she makes a mistake, there is the risk of being labelled a failure.|
|Self-pacing||Let the learner decide the speed of learning so that he/she can learn at his/her own pace. Consider that an appropriate speed varies from learner to learner.|
|Self-evaluation||Whether the program is good or bad is judged not based on a specialists’ opinions, but whether learning is actually established or not. To that end, get learners who have yet to learn the subject matter to try the program under development. Based on the trials, improve the material as necessary.|